if-else Statements

There are times when you want to do something if a condition is true and do something else if the condition is false. You can do this by using the else statement in addition to the if statement, as in the following example:

if (answer == correctAnswer) {
 score += 10;
 System.out.println("That's right. You get 10 points.");
else {
 score -= 5;
 System.out.println("Sorry, that's wrong. You lose 5 points.");

The else statement does not have a condition listed alongside it, unlike the if statement. Generally, the else statement is matched with the if statement that immediately comes before it in a Java program. You also can use else to chain several if statements together, as in the following example:

if (grade == 'A')
 System.out.println("You got an A. Great job!");
else if (grade == 'B')
 System.out.println("You got a B. Good work!");
else if (grade == 'C')
 System.out.println("You got a C. You'll never get into a good "
 + "college!");
 System.out.println("You got an F. You'll do well in Congress!");

By putting together several different if and else statements in this way, you can handle a variety of conditions. In the preceding example, a specific message is sent to A students, B students, C students, and future legislators.