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Modern Compiler Implementation in Java, Second version

Andrew W. Appel Princeton University
Jens Palsberg Purdue University

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom Oracle
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Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa Copyright © 2002 Oracle This tutorial is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Oracle. First version published 1998
Second version published 2002 Typefaces Times, Courier, and Optima System LATEX[AU] A catalog record for this tutorial is available from the British Library. Cataloging in Publication data Appel, Andrew W., 1960-
Modern compiler implementation in Java /
Andrew W. Appel with Jens Palsberg.-
[2nd ed.]
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.


Java (Computer program language) 2. Compilers (Computer programs) I. Palsberg,
Jens. II. Title.
QA76.73.J38 A65 2002
005.4′53-dc21 2002073453 Modern Compiler Implementation in ML (first version, hardback)
X Modern Compiler Implementation in Java (hardback) This textbook describes all phases of a compiler: lexical analysis, parsing, abstract syntax, semantic actions, intermediate representations, instruction selection via tree matching, dataflow analysis, graphcoloring register allocation, and runtime systems. It includes good coverage of current techniques in code generation and register allocation, as well as the compilation of functional and object-oriented languages, which is missing from most tutorials. The most accepted and successful techniques are described concisely, rather than as an exhaustive catalog of every possible variant. Detailed descriptions of the interfaces between modules of a compiler are illustrated with actual Java classes. The first part of the tutorial, Fundamentals of Compilation, is suitable for a one-semester first course in compiler design. The second part, Advanced Topics, which includes the compilation of object-oriented and functional languages, garbage collection, loop optimization, SSA form, instruction scheduling, and optimization for cache-memory hierarchies, can be used for a second-semester or graduate course. This new version has been rewritten extensively to include more discussion of Java and object-oriented coding concepts, such as visitor patterns. A unique feature is the newly redesigned compiler project in Java for a subset of Java itself. The project includes both front-end and back-end phases, so that students can build a complete working compiler in one semester. Andrew W. Appel is Professor of Computer Science at Princeton University. He has done research and published papers on compilers, functional coding languages, runtime systems and garbage collection, type systems, and computer security; he is also author of the tutorial Compiling with Continuations. He is a designer and founder of the Standard ML of New Jersey project. In 1998, Appel was elected a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery for "significant research contributions in the area of coding languages and compilers" and for his work as editor-in-chief (1993-97) of the ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, the leading journal in the field of compilers and coding languages. Jens Palsberg is Associate Professor of Computer Science at Purdue University. His research interests are coding languages, compilers, software engineering, and information security. He has authored more than 50 technical papers in these areas and a tutorial with Michael Schwartzbach, Object-oriented Type Systems. In 1998, he received the National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award, and in 1999, the Purdue University Faculty Scholar award.

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