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Content Handlers

Content handlers are one of the ideas that got developers excited about Java in the first place. At the time that Java was first released, Netscape, NCSA, Spyglass, and a few other combatants were fighting a battle over who would control the standards for web browsing. One of the battlegrounds was different browsers' ability to handle various kinds of files. The first browsers understood only HTML. The next generation understood HTML and GIF. JPEG support was soon added. The intensity of this battle meant that new versions of browsers were released every couple of weeks. Netscape made the first attempt to break this infinite loop by introducing plug-ins in Navigator 2.0. Plug-ins are platform-dependent browser extenders written in C that add the ability to view new content types such as Adobe PDF and VRML. However, plug-ins have drawbacks. Each new content type requires the user to download and install a new plug-in, if indeed the right plug-in is even available for the user's platform. To keep up, users had to expend bandwidth and time downloading new browsers and plug-ins, each of which fixed a few bugs and added a few new features. The Java team saw a way around this dilemma. Their idea was to use Java to download only the parts of the program that had to be updated rather than the entire browser. Furthermore, when the user encountered a web page that used a new content type, the browser could automatically download the code that was needed to view that content type. The user wouldn't have to stop, FTP a plug-in, quit the browser, install the plug-in, restart the browser, and reload the page. The mechanism that the Java team envisioned was the content handler. Each new data type that a web site wanted to serve would be associated with a content handler written in Java. The content handler would be responsible for parsing the content and displaying it to the user in the web browser window. The abstract class that content handlers for specific data types such as PNG or RTF would extend was java.net.ContentHandler. James Gosling and Henry McGilton described this scenario in 1996:

HotJava's dynamic behavior is also used for understanding different types of objects. For example, most Web browsers can understand a small set of image formats (typically GIF, X11 pixmap, and X11 bitmap). If they see some other type, they have no way to deal with it. HotJava, on the other hand, can dynamically link the code from the host that has the image, allowing it to display the new format. So, if someone invents a new compression algorithm, the inventor just has to make sure that a copy of its Java code is installed on the server that contains the images they want to publish; they don't have to upgrade all the browsers in the world. HotJava essentially upgrades itself on the fly when it sees this new type. (James Gosling and Henry McGilton, The Java Language Environment, A White Paper, May 1996, http://java.oracle.com/docs/white/langenv/HotJava.doc1.html)

Unfortunately, content handlers never really made it out of Sun's white papers into shipping software. The ContentHandler class still exists in the standard library, and it has some uses in custom apps. However, neither HotJava nor any other web browser actually uses it to display content. When HotJava downloads an HTML page or a bitmapped image, it handles it with hardcoded routines that process that particular kind of data. When HotJava encounters an unknown content type, it simply asks the user to locate a helper app that can display the file, almost exactly like a traditional web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer, as xref linkend="ch17-35419"/ proves. The promise of dynamically extensible web browsers automatically downloading content handlers for new data types as they encounter them was never realized. Perhaps the biggest problem was that the ContentHandler class was too generic, providing too little information about what kind of object was being downloaded and how it should be displayed.

Screenshot-1. HotJava's reaction to an unexpected content type, even though a content handler for this type is installed
Java figs/JNP3_1701.gif

Screenshot

A much more robust and better thought-out content handler mechanism is now available under the name JavaBeans Activation Framework. This is a standard extension to Java that provides the necessary API for deciding what to do with arbitrary datatypes at runtime. However, JAF has not yet been used inside web browsers or even widely adopted, although that shouldn't stop you from using it inside your own apps if you find it useful. See http://java.oracle.com/beans/glasgow/jaf.html for more details.


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