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We develop our graph-processing algorithms using an ADT that defines the fundamental tasks, using the standard mechanisms introduced in Chapter 4. Program 17.1 is the ADT interface that we use for this purpose. Basic graph representations and implementations for this ADT are the topics of s 17.3 through 17.5. Later in the tutorial, whenever we consider a new graph-processing problem, we consider the algorithms that solve it and their implementations in the context of client programs and ADTs that access graphs through this interface. This scheme allows us to address graph-processing tasks ranging from elementary maintenance operations to sophisticated solutions of difficult problems.

This interface is a starting point for implementing and testing graph algorithms. It defines a Graph data type with the standard representation-independent ADT interface methodology from Chapter 4 and uses a trivial Edge data type to encasulate pairs of vertices as edges (see text). The Graph constructor takes two parameters: an integer giving the number of vertices and a Boolean that tells whether the graph is undirected or directed (a digraph). The basic operations that we use to process graphs and digraphs are ADT operations to create and destroy them, to report the number of vertices and edges, and to add and delete edges. The method getAdjList provides an AdjList iterator so that clients can process each of the vertices adjacent to any given vertex. Programs 17.2 and 17.3 illustrate the use of this mechanism.

```class Graph // ADT interface
{ // implementations and private members hidden
Graph(int, boolean)
int V()
int E()
boolean directed()
int insert(Edge)
void remove(Edge)
boolean edge(int, int)
}
```

The interface is based on our standard mechanism that hides representations and implementations from client programs (see Section 4.9). It provides the basic mechanisms that allow clients to build graphs (by constructing the graph and then adding the edges), to maintain the graphs (by removing some edges and adding others), and to test whether an edge exists. The contructor's second argument is a flag indicating whether the graph is directed; the interface also includes a method that allows clients to test this condition. Beyond these basic operations, the Graph interface of Program 17.1 also specifies the basic mechanism that we use to examine graphs: an iterator AdjList for processing the vertices adjacent to any given vertex. Our approach is to require that any such iterator must implement a Java interface that we use only for the purpose of processing the vertices adjacent to a given vertex, in a manner that will become plain when we consider clients and implementations. This interface is defined as follows:

```interface AdjList
{
int beg()
int nxt()
boolean end()
}
```

The first two of these methods are to return a vertex name (the first and the next, respectively, in a sequence of vertices); the third method is for testing whether there are more vertices to process. The Graph interface of Program 17.1 refers to a simple class that allows our programs to manipulate edges in a uniform way, which may be implemented as follows:

```class Edge
{ int v, w;
Edge(int v, int w)
{ this.v = v; this.w = w; }
}
```

This implementation suffices for basic graph-processing algorithms; we consider a more sophisticated one in . The ADT in Program 17.1 is primarily a vehicle to allow us to develop and test algorithms; it is not a general-purpose interface. As usual, we work with the simplest interface that supports the basic graph-processing operations that we wish to consider. Defining such an interface for use in practical apps involves making numerous tradeoffs among simplicity, efficiency, and generality. We consider a few of these tradeoffs next; we address many others in the context of implementations and apps throughout this tutorial. The graph constructor takes the maximum possible number of vertices in the graph as an argument so that implementations can allocate memory accordingly. We adopt this convention solely to make the code compact and readable. A more general graph ADT might include in its interface the capability to add and remove vertices as well as edges; this would impose more demanding requirements on the data structures used to implement the ADT. We might also choose to work at an intermediate level of abstraction and consider the design of interfaces that support higher-level abstract operations on graphs that we can use in implementations. We revisit this idea briefly in , after we consider several concrete representations and implementations.

## Example of a graph-processing method

This method is a graph ADT client that implements a basic graph-processing operation in a manner independent of the representation. It returns an array having all the graph's edges. This implementation illustrates the basis for most of the programs that we consider: we process each edge in the graph by checking all the vertices adjacent to each vertex. We generally do not invoke beg, end, and nxt except as illustrated here, so that we can better understand the performance characteristics of our implementations (see ).

```static Edge[] edges(Graph G)
{ int E = 0;
Edge[] a = new Edge[G.E()];
for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)
{
for (int w = A.beg(); !A.end(); w = A.nxt())
if (G.directed() || v < w)
a[E++] = new Edge(v, w);
}
return a;
}
```

A general graph ADT needs to take into account parallel edges and self-loops, because nothing prevents a client program from invoking insert with an edge that is already present in the graph (parallel edge) or with an edge whose two vertex indices are the same (self-loop). It might be necessary to disallow such edges in some apps, desirable to include them in other apps, and possible to ignore them in still other apps. Self-loops are trivial to handle, but parallel edges can be costly to handle, depending on the graph representation. In certain situations, including a remove parallel edges ADT operation might be appropriate; then, implementations can let parallel edges collect, and clients can remove or otherwise process parallel edges when warranted. We will revisit these issues when we examine graph representations in s 17.3 and 17.4.

## A client method that prints a graph

This implementation of the show method from the GraphIO package of Program 17.4 uses the graph ADT to print a table of the vertices adjacent to each graph vertex. The order in which the vertices appear depends upon the graph representation and the ADT implementation (see Screenshot).

This table illustrates yet another way to represent the graph in Screenshot: We associate each vertex with its set of adjacent vertices (those connected to it by a single edge). Each edge affects two sets: For every edge u-v in the graph, u appears in v's set and v appears in u's set.

```static void show(Graph G)
{
for (int s = 0; s < G.V(); s++)
{
Out.print(s + ": ");
for (int t = A.beg(); !A.end(); t = A.nxt())
{ Out.print(t + " "); }
Out.println("");
}
}
```

Program 17.2 is a method that illustrates the use of the iterator class in the graph ADT. This method extracts a graph's set of edges and returns it in a client-supplied array. A graph is nothing more nor less than its set of edges, and we often need a way to retrieve a graph in this form, regardless of its internal representation. The order in which the edges appear in the array is immaterial and will differ from implementation to implementation. Program 17.3 is another example of the use of the iterator class in the graph ADT, to print out a table of the vertices adjacent to each vertex, as shown in Screenshot. The code in these two examples is quite similar and is similar to the code in numerous graph-processing algorithms. Remarkably, we can build all of the algorithms that we consider in this tutorial on this basic abstraction of processing all the vertices adjacent to each vertex (which is equivalent to processing all the edges in the graph), as in these methods. As discussed in , it is convenient to package related graph-processing methods into a single class. Program 17.4 is an ADT interface for such a class, which is named GraphIO. It defines the show method of Program 17.3 and two methods for inserting into a graph edges taken from standard input (see Exercise 17.12 and Program 17.14 for implementations of these methods). We use GraphIO throughout the tutorial for input/output and a similar class named GraphUtilities for utility methods such as the extract-edges method of Program 17.2.

## Graph-processing input/output interface

This ADT interface illustrates how we might package related graph-processing methods together in a single class. It defines methods for inserting edges defined by pairs of integers on standard input (see Exercise 17.12), inserting edges defined by pairs of symbols on standard input (see Program 17.14), and printing a graph (see Program 17.3). We will use these methods throughout the tutorial. We also reserve a similar class name GraphUtilities to package various other graph-processing methods needed by several of our algorithms, such as Program 17.2.

```class GraphIO
{
static void scanEZ(Graph)
static void scan(Graph)
static void show(Graph)
}
```

Generally, the graph-processing tasks that we consider in this tutorial fall into one of three broad categories:

• Compute the value of some measure of the graph.
• Compute some subset of the edges of the graph.

Examples of the first are the number of connected components and the length of the shortest path between two given vertices in the graph; examples of the second are a spanning tree and the longest cycle containing a given vertex; examples of the third are whether two given vertices are in the same connected component. Indeed, the terms that we defined in immediately bring to mind a host of computational problems. Our convention for addressing such tasks will be to build ADTs that are clients of the basic ADT in Program 17.1 but that, in turn, allow us to separate client programs that need to solve a problem at hand from implementations of graph-processing algorithms. For example, Program 17.5 is an interface for a graph-connectivity ADT. We can write client programs that use this ADT to create objects that can provide the number of connected components in the graph and that can test whether or not any two vertices are in the same connected component. We describe implementations of this ADT and their performance characteristics in , and we develop similar ADTs throughout the tutorial. Typically, such ADTs include a preprocessing method (the constructor), private data fields that keep information learned during the preprocessing, and query methods that use this information to provide clients with information about the graph.

## Connectivity interface

This ADT interface illustrates a typical paradigm that we use for implementing graph-processing algorithms. It allows a client to construct an object that processes a graph so that it can answer queries about the graph's connectivity. The count method returns the number of connected components, and the connect method tests whether two given vertices are connected. Program 18.3 is an implementation of this interface.

```class GraphCC
{
GraphCC(Graph G)
int count()
boolean connect(int, int)
}
```

## Example of a graph-processing client program

This program illustrates the use of the graph-processing ADTs described in this section, using the ADT conventions described in Section 4.5. It constructs a graph with V vertices, inserts edges taken from standard input, prints the resulting graph if it is small, and computes (and prints) the number of connected components. It uses the Graph, GraphIO, and GraphCC ADTs that are defined in Program 17.1, Program 17.4, and Program 17.5 (respectively).

```class DriverExample
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{ int V = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
Graph G = new Graph(V, false);
GraphIO.scanEZ(G);
if (V < 20) GraphIO.show(G);
Out.print(G.E() + " edges ");
GraphCC Gcc = new GraphCC(G);
Out.println(Gcc.count() + " components");
}
}
```

For example, we might consider an array of edges representation as the basis for an ADT implementation (see Exercise 17.16). That direct representation is simple, but it does not allow us to perform efficiently the basic graph-processing operations that we shall be studying. As we will see, most graph-processing apps can be handled reasonably with one of two straightforward classical representations that are only slightly more complicated than the array-of-edges representation: the adjacency-matrix or the adjacency-lists representation. These representations, which we consider in detail in s 17.3 and 17.4, are based on elementary data structures (indeed, we discussed them both in Chapters 3 and 5 as example apps of sequential and linked allocation). The choice between the two depends primarily on whether the graph is dense or sparse, although, as usual, the nature of the operations to be performed also plays an important role in the decision on which to use.

#### Exercises

17.12 Implement the scanEZ method from Program 17.4: Write a method that builds a graph by reading edges (pairs of integers between 0 and V – 1) from standard input.

17.13 Write an ADT client that adds all the edges in a given array to a given graph.

17.14 Write a method that invokes edges and prints out all the edges in the graph, in the format used in this text (vertex numbers separated by a hyphen).

17.15 Develop an implementation for the connectivity ADT of Program 17.5, using a union-find algorithm (see Chapter 1).

• 17.16 Provide an implementation of the ADT operations in Program 17.1 that uses an array of edges to represent the graph. Use a brute-force implementation of remove that removes an edge v-w by scanning the array to find v-w or w-v and then exchanges the edge found with the final one in the array. Use a similar scan to implement the iterator. Note: Reading first might make this exercise easier.

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