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External Searching

Search algorithms that are appropriate for accessing items from huge files are of immense practical importance. Searching is the fundamental operation on huge data sets, and it certainly consumes a significant fraction of the resources used in many computing environments. With the advent of world wide networking, we have the ability to gather almost all the information that is possibly relevant to a task—our challenge is to be able to search through it efficiently. In this chapter, we discuss basic underlying mechanisms that can support efficient search in symbol tables that are as large as we can imagine.

Like those in , the algorithms that we consider in this chapter are relevant to numerous different types of hardware and software environments. Accordingly, we tend to think about the algorithms at a level more abstract than that of the Java programs that we have been considering. However, the algorithms that we shall consider also directly generalize familiar searching methods and are conveniently expressed as Java programs that are useful in many situations. We will proceed in a manner different from that in : We will develop specific implementations in detail, consider their essential performance characteristics, and then discuss ways in which the underlying algorithms might prove useful under situations that might arise in practice. Taken literally, the title of this chapter is a misnomer, since we will present the algorithms as Java programs that we could substitute interchangeably for the other symbol-table implementations that we have considered in Chapters 12 through 15. As such, they are not "external" methods at all. However, they are built in accordance with a simple abstract model, which makes them precise specifications of how to build searching methods for specific external devices.

Detailed abstract models are less useful than they were for sorting because the costs involved are so low for many important apps. We shall be concerned mainly with methods for searching in huge files stored on any external device where we have fast access to arbitrary blocks of data, such as a disk. For tapelike devices, where only sequential access is allowed (one model that we considered in ), searching degenerates to the trivial (and slow) method of starting at the beginning and reading until completion of the search. For disklike devices, we can do much better: Remarkably, the methods that we shall study can support search and insert operations on symbol tables containing billions or trillions of items using only three or four references to blocks of data on disk. System parameters—such as block size and the ratio of the cost of accessing a new block to the cost of accessing the items within a block—affect performance, but the methods are relatively insensitive to the values of these parameters (within the ranges of values that we are likely to encounter in practice). Moreover, the most important steps that we must take to adapt the methods to particular practical situations are straightforward.

Searching is a fundamental operation for disk devices. Files are typically organized to take advantage of particular device characteristics to make access to information as efficient as possible. In short, it is safe to assume that the devices that we use to store huge amounts of information are built to support efficient and straightforward implementations of search. In this chapter, we consider algorithms built at a level of abstraction slightly higher than that of the basic operations provided by disk hardware, which can support insert and other dynamic symbol-table operations. These methods afford the same kinds of advantages over the straightforward methods that BSTs and hash tables offer over binary search and sequential search.

In many computing environments, we can address a huge virtual memory directly and can rely on the system to find efficient ways to handle any program's requests for data. The algorithms that we consider also can be effective solutions to the symbol-table implementation problem in such environments.

A collection of information to be processed with a computer is called a database. A great deal of study has gone into methods of building, maintaining, and using databases. Much of this work has been in the development of abstract models and implementations to support search operations with criteria more complex than the simple "match a single key" criterion that we have been considering. In a database, searches might be based on criteria for partial matches, perhaps including multiple keys, and might be expected to return a large number of items. We touch on methods of this type in Parts 6 and 7. General search requests are sufficiently complicated that it is not atypical for us to do a sequential search over the entire database, testing each item to see if it meets the criteria. Still, fast search for tiny bits of data matching specific criteria in a huge file is an essential capability in any database system, and many modern databases are built on the mechanisms that we describe in this chapter.


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